The Ultimate Cancer Diet And Nutrition Guide
Table Of Contents

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The information is presented for educational purposes only and is not intended to diagnose, prescribe treat or cure cancer.This information is not intended as medical advice, please refer to a qualified healthcare professional.

Welcome To The Ultimate Cancer Diet And Nutrition Guide!

Thank you for your interest in The Ultimate Cancer Diet And Nutrition Guide! I hope you will learn a lot and know how to prevent cancer with your diet.

Our food is one of our biggest sources of energy. We need it to stay strong and survive. Unhealthy food, however, can be dangerous and destroy our health. 

The Standard American Diet makes us sick. It is full of animal products, fat, and processed food. To stay healthy, we need to absorb nutrients from what we eat. Processed food is void of nutrients and therefore make us weak.

Apple

Fruits and vegetables are our preferred diet

Every animal on the planet has their perfect diet. Carnivores like lions and tigers thrive on meat.

Their anatomy makes them capable of ingesting meat without a problem. But if they eat vegetables, they become sick and weak.

Other animals like horses, elephants, and rhinos thrive on a plant-based diet. Many believe that humans are carnivores like lions, but that is not true.

Plants are our preferred source of energy. They contain all the protein, minerals, and vitamins we need except for Vitamin D and B12. We become strong and fit when we eat plants. Humans and carnivores have different anatomies as shown in the box below.

Humans 

Carnivores

​Small mouth

​Wide mouth

​Can move mouth side to side

​Can only move mouth up and down

​Small canines and teeth

​Large canines and teeth

​Long intestines

​Short intestines

​Gastric pH 4-5

​Gastric pH 1-2

​Hands and nails

​Sharp claws

​No instinct to kill animals

​Instinct to kill animals

​No fat or protein receptors on tongue

​Fat and protein receptors on tongue

Thrive on starch, vegetables, fruits

​Thrive on meat

Animal products like meat, dairy, steaks, and pork chops make us ill. They increase our risk of heart disease, diabetes, and cancer. Vegetables from whole foods decrease our cancer risk. 

In this nutrition guide, you’re going to learn how to eat a healthy whole food low-fat plant-based diet. 

You will discover:

  • What you need to thrive on a plant-based diet
  • What vitamins, minerals, and macronutrients are and where to get them
  • How to measure your nutritional intake and get enough calories on a plant-based diet

When you eat the HCLF-diet you have a better chance of fighting cancer. The first concept you have to understand is macronutrients. So what is it exactly?

Section 1: Macronutrients

The dictionary definition of macro is "large in scale and scope." Nutrient means "source of nourishment." So together they mean "a large in scale source of nourishment." 

Macronutrients are broader groups of nutrients like proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. We need to eat them in bulk. Water is also a macronutrient even if it doesn't contain any nutrients. So let's start looking at water and then the other macronutrients.

1

Chapter 1: The Health Benefits Of Water

Your body mass consists of up to 75% water. Water plays an essential role in our digestion, waste removal, and temperature regulation. Although it yields no energy, it is vital for life.

water droplet

Water is essential for our health

Water makes up a large part of our foods, too. Fruits and vegetables have high water content and can keep you hydrated. The human body can survive for long periods without food. 

Going without water for a few days can be detrimental. Dehydration may lead to dry skin, dizziness, fatigue, rapid heartbeat, and even death.

So what causes dehydration?

What Causes Dehydration? 

There are many reasons you can get dehydrated, one of them is stress. When you’re under pressure, your adrenal glands pump out stress hormones. As adrenal fatigue progresses, your body becomes dehydrated.

Many people don’t drink enough water. They can drink less than six glasses of water per day and replace it with unhealthy alternatives. 

Sodas, coffee, caffeinated tea, and alcohol, damages the body. Caffeine can trigger stress responses that have strong diuretic effects. Millions of people drink sodas instead of water.

drought

Water keeps things flowing in your gastrointestinal tract and prevents constipation

Sodas have massive amounts of sugar and awful chemicals. One can of soda contains ten teaspoons of sugar. Soda has phosphoric acid, which interferes with the body’s ability to absorb calcium.

Ditching regular sodas for diet sodas don’t protect you from harm. Diet sodas add aspartame instead of sugar. Aspartame is behind almost one hundred different health problems including brain tumors and diabetes.

High Fructose Corn Syrup is another sweetener common in sodas. It's not better than sugar and is often genetically modified. Soft drinks do not contain any nutritional value. They are acidic, and bad for our health.

Alcohol has a detrimental effect on your body. When you drink alcohol, your liver needs to work in overdrive to get rid of the toxins. 

Excessive alcohol can scar and damage the liver, and increase the risk of liver cancer. Another thing to look out for in your water is fluoride and chloride.

The Toxins In Our Water Supply And How To Avoid Them

Many water supplies in America apply fluoride to the water. Sodium fluoride (NaF) is a toxic waste product from the aluminum production. It has damaging effects on any living organism. 

Fluoride in the water does not help your teeth. It also accumulates in the bones and causes a bone disease called skeletal fluorosis.

Many countries put chlorine in the water supply. Chlorine is a yellow-green gas with a strong odor. Soldiers used it during World War I as a chemical weapon.

jug med toxic water

Our water may contain Sodium fluoride (NaF) and Chlorine

Today we use it to disinfect everything from tap water to industrial waste, and swimming pools. The main reason for adding chlorine to water is to kill harmful pathogens. We use chlorine not because of its safety or efficiency, but due to its low price.

One of the best ways you can invest in your health is to buy a water purification system. A good brand is Berkey. It removes pathogens, heavy metals, pharmaceutical drugs, rust, and more.

With the Berkey, you can filter about 6000 gallons of water before you have to change the black filters. Drink about 6-8 cups(2 liters) or more of water every day.

Don’t forget to take more water when you exercise or the weather is hot.

Another macronutrient we need is protein. So let’s learn what it is and how to get it on a plant-based diet.

2

Chapter 2: What Is Protein?

Protein is one of our macronutrients. It consists of chains of 20 different amino acids. Our stomach acids and intestinal enzymes convert protein into individual amino acids.

These components then go through the intestinal walls into the bloodstream. After these amino cells enter the body's cells, they convert back into proteins.

Proteins are structural materials that maintain cell shapes and enzymes. They also help cells signal between each other. Protein is essential for our health because it builds and maintains muscles. 

Our protein requirement goes up as we make muscles. What distinguishes protein from carbs and fats is nitrogen. 

There are eight amino acids that people cannot make themselves. Therefore we must get them from our diet. Plants and microorganisms can synthesize all individual amino acids to build proteins.

But wait a minute! Don't plants contain incomplete protein? Let's talk about this common myth and why it is not true.

Plants Contain All The Protein We Need

Contrary to common belief, plants contain all the protein we need so long as we eat enough calories per day. We don’t need to eat animal products to stay healthy. Plants are rich sources of protein. 

Huge herbivorous animals like elephants, horses, rhinos, and gorillas are not protein deficient. They are one of the strongest animals on earth.

Many people believe that plants don't contain enough protein and that you need to get if from meat. But that is a myth that started in 1971. At that time Frances Moore Lappé wrote the book "Diet for a Small Planet."

Gorilla in nature

Gorillas get all the protein they need from plants

Lappé believed that plant protein was incomplete. She suggested that vegetarians needed to combine various plants to prevent protein deficiencies. Lappé retracted this statement in a revised edition of this book.

She said that you could get adequate protein from plants if consuming enough calories. But it was too late. People already believed that plants lacked complete protein.

If you eat enough calories on a plant-based diet, you will not become protein deficient. Just eat beans, fruits, vegetables, and grains and don't worry about it.

Here is a list of some plant foods with lots of protein:

Top Plant Foods With Protein

Food

Amount 

Firm Tofu

43.5g (87% DV) in 1 cup 

Tempeh

33.7g (67% DV) in 1 cup

Boiled Soybeans (edamame)

31.3g (63% DV) in 1 cup

Extra Firm Fortified Tofu

23g (46% DV) in 1 cup 

Cooked Green Soybeans

22.2g (44% DV) in 1 cup

Tempeh Cooked 

19.9g (40% DV) in 100g

Canned Navy Beans 

19.7g (39% DV) in 1 cup 

Edamame 

18.5g (37% DV) in 1 cup 

Lentils (cooked) 

17.9g (36% DV) in 1 cup

Cooked Large White Beans

17.4g (35% DV) in 1 cup 

Adzuki Beans 

17.3g (35% DV) in 1 cup

Natto 

17.1g (34% DV) in 1/2 cup

Cranberry Beans (Roman Beans) 

16.5g (33% DV) in 1 cup

Split Peas 

16.3g (33% DV) in 1 cup

California Red Kidney Beans

16.2g (32% DV) in 1 cup

Cooked Small White Beans 

16.1g (32% DV) in 1 cup

Pinto Beans (cooked)

15.4g (31% DV) in 1 cup

Kidney Beans 

15.3g (31% DV) in 1 cup

Black Beans 

15.2g (30% DV) in 1 cup

Black Turtle Beans

15.1g (30% DV) in 1 cup

Navy Beans 

15g (30% DV) in 1 cup

Great Northern Beans 

14.7g (29% DV) in 1 cup

Lima Beans 

14.7g (29% DV) in 1 cup

50g Protein = 100% DV, Data from Myfooddata

It’s almost impossible to design a protein-deficient diet that isn’t also a starvation diet. Only plants can synthesize protein. When carnivores eat other herbivores, they use the protein that they got from plants. 

We don’t need to consume all the essential amino acids at every meal. Humans are good recyclers of amino acids. When we aren’t eating enough protein, we can reuse amino acids at 90% efficiency.

Too much protein in our diet can also be toxic.

​What Happens When You Eat Too Much Protein?

There’s a limit to how much protein our bodies can use. Our GI tracts limit the amount of protein we can digest. Overconsumption of protein overworks the liver and kidneys and can cause protein toxicity. 

The liver and kidneys work best when we don't overconsume protein. Proteins consist of amino acids and are acidic by nature. Animal proteins are abundant in sulfur-containing amino acids.

Butcher shop

Too much protein is toxic to the body

These break down into sulfuric acid. It is abundant in hard cheese, red meat, poultry, seafood, and eggs. Your body uses calcium found in your bones to neutralize these acids.

As your calcium levels deplete, your bones weaken and lead to osteoporosis. Released bone materials often settle in the kidneys, causing kidney stones. Most fruits and vegetables are alkaline and preserve bone health.

So what is the right amount of protein you need per day? You will be shocked by the answer.

​How Much Protein Do You Need Per Day?

Many people will be shocked at how little protein we need per day. The recommended daily allowance of protein is relatively low. The US government says that we need around 0.8 grams of protein per kilogram of lean body mass. 

The WHO recommends a more conservative level of 0.66 grams of protein per kilogram of lean body mass. Since the U.S government uses an elevated RDA level, the WHO number is closer to your real needs.

calculator

You can calculate your protein needs

The most popular protein formula is 1 gram of protein per kilogram of body weight. This number may be appropriate for endurance athletes, babies, and the bedridden elderly.

They have higher protein needs than the general public. But for everyone else, 1 gram per kilogram is way too much. Most people use body weight as a protein denominator.

A better way to calculate your protein need is to use lean body mass. Lean body mass is your body's weight without the fat.

You can calculate your lean body mass by using one of these three formulas:

Lean Body Mass Formula for Adults 

The Boer Formula

For males: 

eLBM = 0.407×weight(kg) + 0.267×height(cm) - 19.2 

For females: 

eLBM = 0.252×weight(kg) + 0.473×height(cm) - 48.3 2.

The James Formula

For males:

eLBM = 1.1×weight(kg) - 128×(weight(kg)/height(cm) ² 

For females:

eLBM = 1.07×weight(kg) - 148×(weight(kg)/height(cm) ²

The Hume Formula

For males:

eLBM = 0.32810×weight(kg) + 0.33929×height(cm) - 29.5336 

For females:

eLBM = 0.29569×weight(kg) + 0.41813×height(cm) - 43.2933

Example: Let's say John weighs 180 pounds(82 kg) and is 5.8 ft tall (177 cm).

Let's use the Boer Formula:

eLBM = 0.407×82 + 0.267×177 - 19.2= 61.43

John's lean body mass is 61.43 kg.

The correct RDA protein is thus 0.8 x 61.43, or 49 g per day.
Or 0.66x 61.43= 40.54 g protein using WHO's protein prediction.

Measuring your protein intake by body weight is a mistake. Let's say that John gained weight by eating too much fat. He now weighs 200 pounds(90.71 kg). 

If we calculated his protein need based on weight alone, then that would amount to: 0.8 grams x 90.71 kg(200lbs) = 72,54 g protein per day.

John's protein requirements didn't change because he gained weight. He still only needs between 40.54-49 g protein per day.

Another macronutrient we need is carbohydrates.

3

Chapter 3: What Are Carbohydrates?

Carbohydrates are our most important macronutrient. It is a significant building block of plants. It is our brain’s primary source of energy.

Carbs consist of glucose or sugar. Plants use water, carbon dioxide, and sunshine to form simple sugars. The name of this process is photosynthesis.

The most basic carbohydrate is glucose. If you look inside the plant’s cells, you can see that they join together into chains. Some chains attach to a straight line called amylose. Others connect in many branches called amylopectin.

There are three basic types of carbohydrates, sugar, cellulose, and starch. Each contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in specific configurations.

The simplest of these sugars include sucrose, fructose, lactose, and glucose. Sucrose is the granulated sugar you use when you bake cookies. Fructose makes fruits sweet.

Lactose in milk is the only animal food that contains carbohydrate. Most adults can't digest dairy because it is food for calves, not humans. Drinking dairy leads to diarrhea, stomach cramps, and gas.

Glucose is the pure sugar that comes together in chains to make cellulose and starch. Cellulose consists of chains of glucose bonded together by indigestible linkages.

You can find cellulose in the cell walls of plants, wood, and other organic matter. Our digestive system doesn’t have the enzymes to break down cellulose for fuel.

Although we get no energy from them, they are valuable to us for their dietary fiber. Plant foods contain both simple and complex carbohydrates in various amounts.

Fruits are often more than 90% carbohydrate. Most of their carbs are simple sugars such as glucose and fructose.

Green and yellow vegetables store most of their calories as complex carbohydrates. Since they contain few calories, the number of complex carbohydrates are low.

Beans, peas, and lentils are about 70% complex carbohydrates. Whole grains, potatoes, corn, and sweet potatoes contain large quantities of starch.

So what is starch and why do we need lots of it to succeed on a plant-based diet?

What Is Starch?

Human anatomy is herbivorous. We're meant to eat a diet consisting of plant foods. The natural diet of chimpanzees, our closest relative, is almost pure vegetarian. 

Human and chimp DNA is roughly 99% identical. But that 1% difference includes genes to digest more starch. We thrive on starch.

The term “starch” comes from the Middle English word sterchen: to stiffen. In its pure form, starch is a white, odorless, tasteless powder.

corn starch

Starch is a white, odorless, tasteless powder

Starch granules don’t dissolve in water, but heat causes them to swell and turn gelatinous. The starch gel cools into a paste that can act as a thickener, stiffener, or glue.

Starch is a complex carbohydrate made up of long chains of sugar molecules. Plants store it for future use. They synthesize it from the sun and convert it into tiny starch granules. Plants use this reserve to survive the winter, re-grow the next year, and to reproduce. 

Some vegetables contain more starch, they include:

Vegetables that contain lots of starch
  • Tubers (potatoes, sweet potato, cassava)
  • Legumes (beans, peas, lentils)
  • Grains (barley, corn, rice, wheat)

Green and yellow vegetables, such as broccoli, cauliflower, and asparagus, contain little starch. Fruits have simple sugars, not complex ones. 

All animal foods have no starch at all. You should center your diet around starch, and this is why.

Why You Should Center Your Diet Around Starch

Starch should be the basis of your diet and vegetables should have a smaller part. Plants don’t contain as many calories as meat does. Eating non-starchy vegetables will make you hungry within hours. 

It takes longer time for your body to break down starches into glucose. Because of the slow release of sugars, you won't feel hungry right away.

Starch is a cheap way to get enough calories on a plant-based diet. They contain enough calories to meet the energy requirements of an active person.

potato cartoon

Potatoes and sweet potatoes can meet all of our nutritional needs alone

Starchy vegetables are abundant in protein, fats, fibers, and minerals. Some single starches, for example, potatoes and sweet potatoes, are complete foods.

They can meet all of our nutritional needs alone. Grains and legumes are deficient in vitamins A and C. You need to combine them with fruits and vegetables to get these vitamins.

Loading up on carbohydrates several times a day will give you the energy to race through your busy life. But not all carbs are created equal.

Let's talk about refined carbohydrates and why you should avoid them.

Refined Carbs Are Not The Same As Whole Foods

 When I say the word "glucose" or "sugar," most people think of white table sugar. You should not confuse white sugar to healthy sugars found in fruits and vegetables. 

Granulated sugar goes through a hefty refining process. It contains no fibers, proteins, essential fats, vitamins or minerals. Therefore we call them empty calories.

Many Americans eat too little carbs. The few carbs they eat are often empty calories from white sugar, corn syrup, and fructose.

cookies

Refined carbs like cookies are unhealthy and should be avoided

Refined sugar can provide some energy. But too much of it can lead to tooth decay and weakening of the body’s defense and repair systems.

The low-carb movement often mentions refined carbs when they want to demonize vegetables. While I agree that refined carbs are not health foods, that still doesn't mean that all plants are bad.

Cakes, potato chips, french fries, and cheap white bread are not healthy. Most products that contain refined carbs like white flower also has lots of fat.

A whole-food plant-based diet is an entirely different story. This diet contains all the nutrients, and vitamins that you need to stay healthy. You shouldn't be afraid of carbs as long as they come from whole foods.

Avoid refined carbs and don't eat processed junk food. Eat fruits and vegetables in their natural form, and there shouldn't be a problem. Another important macronutrient we need is fat.

4

Chapter 4: What Are Fats?

Fat is an essential macronutrient. It consists of complex molecules made up of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen. The body uses fat for energy storage when there is no food available.

Fats and oils differ in that fats are solid at room temperature, while oils are liquid. The reason has to do with their chemical structure. All fats consist of carbon atoms attached in long chains.

When the strings are more linear and rigid, they make the final products stable. When the chains bend and are more flexible and loose, they become a liquid.

There are only a few unsaturated fats we need and that our bodies can’t make by themselves. To get these essential fats, we have to eat them. More on that later.

Too much fat in our diet makes us fat and may lead to diabetes, heart disease, and cancer. The fat you eat is the fat you wear. Fats contain a lot of calories, 9 per gram.

The body stores dietary fat in your liver, heart, and muscles. Too much fat in the body creates insulin resistance. This condition later leads to heart disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes.

Fat content in animal meat
  • Beef - 60-80% fat
  • Pork 80-95% fat
  • Chicken 30-50% fat
  • Fish 5% – 60% fat

Carrying around excess fat also puts stress on the joints, hips, and knees. Excess dietary fat alters your entire cellular metabolism and may lead to cancer. 

Vegetable oils are not health foods. They contain 100% fat. Oils are no longer food. They supply concentrated calories but nothing else from plants. 

Poly and monounsaturated fats found in vegetable oils depress the immune system. You should avoid all vegetable oils and margarine. Even cold pressed olive- and coconut oils are damaging.

obese person

Too much dietary fat leads to obesity

All plants contain adequate fat if you eat enough calories. Fats in your diet should be low, around 5-10% of your daily calories. The safest and healthiest way to get your fats is through starches, vegetables, and fruits.

Vegetables have balanced fat levels. Carbs do not promote excess weight gain. That is because the body burns them off, rather than storing them when consumed in excess.

Obesity is almost unknown among billions of Asians that eat lots of rice. Starches are low in fat, about 1-8 %. Plants contain no cholesterol. They do not grow human pathogens, like salmonella, and E. Coli.

Fats in food

Nuts and seeds carry lots of fat

Some plant foods contain more fats like nuts, seeds, avocado, and coconuts. These are healthy fats. If you suffer from a severe condition like cancer, it is better to reduce or avoid them altogether.

There are two categories of fats: saturated fats and unsaturated fats. So let's look at what they are.

The Dangers Of Saturated Fat

Saturated fat is solid at room temperature. The word "saturated" refers to the number of hydrogen atoms surrounding each carbon atom.

Each chain of carbon atoms holds as many hydrogen atoms as possible  You most often find saturated fat in animal foods. Some sources of saturated fat include: 

  • Red meat
  • Chicken
  • Butter
  • Cheese
  • Poultry
  • Coconut oil
  • Bacon
  • Pork
  • Dairy
  • Shortening
  • Beef
  • Palm oil
  • Sausages
  • Cookies

Saturated fat creates inflammation in the body. A diet high in saturated fat raises your low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels. LDL( bad cholesterol) increase your risk of heart disease and type 2 diabetes. 

You can only find cholesterol in animal products. Plant foods never contain cholesterol. Animal foods, provide too much fat. Like all animals, we produce all the cholesterol we need. Our bodies, however, are terrible at eliminating excess cholesterol. 

foods with saturated fat

Animal products contain lots of saturated fat

Cholesterol from animal foods accumulates in our skin and tendons. Too much of it blocks the arteries in the heart and brain.

This cumulation then leads to heart attacks and strokes. Cholesterol also promotes cancer development. Eggs contain more cholesterol than any other food. 

Avoid saturated fat at all cost. The easiest way to do that is to stop eating animal products. Also, avoid coconut oils as their high saturated fat levels make them harmful to our health.

Another type of fat we get from our diet is unsaturated fat.

What Is Unsaturated Fat?

Unsaturated fat consists of fatty acid in which there is one or more double bond in the fatty acid chain. As oils, these fats are liquids at room temperature. You can also find them in solid foods. Dietary sources of unsaturated fats include:

  • Avocado and avocado oil
  • Peanut butter and peanut oil
  • Fatty fish(salmon, mackerel) 
  • Olives and olive oil
  • Vegetables oils
  • Nuts and seeds

There are two subcategories of unsaturated fat, monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fats.

Monounsaturated Fats

Monounsaturated fat is a fatty acid with one double bond in the fatty acid chain. The rest is single-bonded. Monounsaturated fats are liquid at room temperature, but start to harden when chilled. 

monosaturated fat

Monounsaturated fat

Eating foods that are high in monounsaturated fats may help lower your "bad" LDL cholesterol. Monounsaturated fats may also keep "good" HDL cholesterol levels high. 

But eating more unsaturated fat without cutting back on saturated fat may not lower your cholesterol. You should only get it from whole foods and not oils. 

Polyunsaturated fats

Polyunsaturated fats have many unsaturated chemical bonds. They stay liquid at room temperature and in the refrigerator. The term "polyunsaturated" refers to their chemical structure. Poly means many and unsaturated refers to double bonds.

polyunsaturated fat

Polyunsaturated fat

Polyunsaturated fats include omega-3 and omega-6 fats. These are essential fatty acids that the body needs for brain function and cell growth. Our bodies do not make essential fatty acids, so you can only get them from food.

So what is omega 3, 6 and 9?

Fatty Acids Omega 3, 6, 9

Omega-3 is short for omega-3 fatty acid. It's an essential fatty acid in the human body. We can not produce it ourselves, so we must get it from our diet.

Omega refers to the placement of the double bonds on the fatty acid chain. Each fatty acid has a long string of carbon atoms. There is a carboxylic acid end called alpha and one methyl end named omega.

The number 3 means that the first double bond is three carbon atoms away from the "omega" end. Omega-6 implies that the double bond is six carbon atoms away from the omega end.

Chemical structure of an Alpha-linolenic acid(ALA)

Chemical structure of an Alpha-linolenic acid(ALA)

Alpha-linolenic acid(ALA) from plants is the most popular omega-3 fat. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)  is an omega-3 fat made by animals. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) also comes from animals. You can find it in large concentrations in fish oils.

Linoleic acid is from plants and is the most common omega-6 fat consumed by people. Another omega-6 fat often talked about is gamma-linolenic acid. Gamma linolenic acid is also an omega-6 fat from plants. 

Linoleic acid is common in vegetable seed oils. The primary dietary source of alpha-linolenic acid is leaves and some seeds. As little as 0.1-0.5% of the calories as linoleic acid is sufficient to correct a fatty acid deficiency. However, higher levels are better for optimal health. 

You can find essential fatty acids in significant amounts in various plants:

Fatty acids in plants
  • Linoleic: Safflower, sunflower, hemp seed, soybeans, walnuts, pumpkin, sesame, flax seeds
  • Alpha-linolenic: Flax seeds, hemp, canola (rapeseed), soybeans, walnuts, green leafy vegetables, purslane, perilla.
  • Gamma-linolenic: Borage, black currant seed, primrose.

​​Animals cannot create double bonds after the third and sixth carbon on the chain. Only plants can make this arrangement. The result is that only plants can synthesize omega-3 and omega-6 fats. 

Animals that eat plants store these fats in their tissues. For example, fish get omega-3 fats made by algae, they cannot synthesize this kind of fat.

Flaxseeds are a good source of omega-3. One tablespoon of ground flax seeds is enough to meet your daily need of omega-3.  

Omega-9 fatty acids are monounsaturated and have only one double bond. It is nine carbons from the omega end of the fatty acid molecule. Oleic acid is the most common omega-9 fatty acid. Omega-9 fatty acids aren't essential because the body can produce them.

A category of fat that you need to avoid is trans fats.

Why You Should Avoid Trans Fats At All Cost

Trans fats are one of the worst types of fat you can eat. Some meat and dairy products contain small amounts of trans fats. Most trans fats form through a process called hydrogenation.

It is an industrial process that adds hydrogen to vegetable oils. This process causes the oil to become solid at room temperature.  

Margarine

Margarine contains lots of trans fats

Hydrogen turns oils into a more robust product by straightening its carbon chains. These fats raise total cholesterol, LDL “bad” cholesterol, and lower “good” HDL cholesterol. The result is clogged arteries and heart attacks.

Trans-fats may raise our cancer risk by affecting our immune and hormonal systems. They are one reason we might get colon cancer. Hydrogenated oils spoil less, so foods made with it have a longer shelf life.

You can find trans fats in foods like:

  • Cookies
  • Crackers
  • Canned biscuits
  • French fries
  • Fried chicken
  • Frozen pizza crusts
  • Margarine
  • Pie crusts
  • Ready-made frosting
  • Potato, corn, and tortilla chips
  • Doughnuts
  • Cinnamon rolls
  • Nondairy coffee creamer
  • Vegetable oils

If a food has less than 0.5 grams of trans fat in a serving, the food label can read 0 grams trans fat. But this doesn't mean that it is free from trans fats.

Eliminate processed food and read labels to avoid trans fats. Cheap supermarket oils have trans fats produced during the refining and heating stages. Look for "hydrogenated" or "partially hydrogenated" on the ingredients list.

The next thing you need to know about to stay healthy is micronutrients.

Section 2: Micronutrients

Micronutrients are one of the major groups of nutrients your body needs. It requires smaller amounts of micronutrients relative to macronutrients. That’s why we label them “micro.”

The term micronutrients describe vitamins and minerals in general. Macronutrients, on the other hand, include proteins, fats, and carbohydrates.

Humans must get micronutrients from food since your body cannot produce it for the most part. That’s why we see them as essential nutrients. One micronutrient you need is vitamins.

5

Chapter 5: Why We Need Vitamins And Where To Find Them

Vitamins are necessary for energy production, immune function, blood clotting, and other purposes. “Vita” means life, and as the name indicates, vitamins are essential for our existence.

Fruits and vegetables are the primary sources of most vitamins. They contain almost all vitamins needed by the body except for vitamin D and b12.

Vitamin D comes from sunshine and B12 from bacteria. The elderly, alcoholics and those with chronic illnesses have most deficiencies.

Below is a list of some common vitamins and what they do. You will also learn where to get them on a plant-based diet.

B1(Thiamine)

General Purpose:

Vitamin B1 is a vital nutrient. It plays a crucial role in maintaining a healthy nervous system. Vitamin B1 is one of the eight water-soluble vitamins in the B complex family. It helps in the conversion of carbohydrates into glucose and also breaks down fats and proteins. 

It also improves the body’s ability to withstand stress. It is often called the anti-stress vitamin.

 Deficiency Problems:

  • Lethargy
  • Loss of memory
  • Loss of appetite 
  • Indigestion
  • Calf muscle tenderness
  • Irritability
  • Loss of sleep
  • Weight loss
  • Constipation



Recommended daily dose: 1.2 mg



Good Plant Sources With B1

Food

Amount 

Durian 

0.9mg (76% DV) in 1 cup, chopped or diced

Soy Milk 

0.7mg (62% DV) in a 16oz glass

Kidney Bean Sprouts 

0.7mg (57% DV) in 1 cup

Tamarinds 

0.5mg (43% DV) in 1 cup, pulp

Millet Flour 

0.5mg (41% DV) in 1 cup

Toasted Wheat Germ

0.5mg (40% DV) in 1 oz

Cooked Green Soybeans 

0.5mg (39% DV) in 1 cup

Flax Seeds

0.5mg (39% DV) in 1oz

Cooked Teff 

0.5mg (38% DV) in 1 cup

Navy Beans 

0.4mg (36% DV) in 1 cup

Cooked Small White Beans 

0.4mg (35% DV) in 1 cup

Stir-fried Soybean Sprouts 

0.4mg (35% DV) in 100 grams

Black Beans 

0.4mg (35% DV) in 1 cup

Black Turtle Beans 

0.4mg (35% DV) in 1 cup

Cooked Green Peas 

0.4mg (35% DV) in 1 cup

Dried Sunflower Seeds 

0.4mg (35% DV) in 1 oz

Firm Tofu

0.4mg (33% DV) in 1 cup

Whole Grain Sorghum Flour

0.4mg (33% DV) in 1 cup

Peas 

0.4mg (32% DV) in 1 cup

Cranberry Beans (Roman Beans) 

0.4mg (31% DV) in 1 cup

Split Peas 

0.4mg (31% DV) in 1 cup

Canned Navy Beans 

0.4mg (31% DV) in 1 cup

Sesame Butter (tahini) 

0.4mg (30% DV) in 1 oz

Data from Myfooddata



​B2(Riboflavin)

General Purpose:

Vitamin B2 is also known as riboflavin. B2 in the diet turns your urine yellow. Flavin in riboflavin comes from "flavus," the Latin word for yellow.  Vitamin B2 plays a key role in energy production. It may also affect the metabolism of iron.

 Deficiency Problems:

  • Iron deficiency anemia
  • Congestive heart failure
  • Cataract
  • Migraine headaches
  • High Homocysteine
  • Parkinson's disease
  • Hypertension



Recommended daily dose: 1.3 mg



Good Plant Sources With B2

Food

Amount 

Unsweetened Soy Milk 

1mg (79% DV) in a 16oz glass

Soy Milk 

1mg (77% DV) in a 16oz glass

Extra Firm Fortified Tofu 

1mg (76% DV) in 1 cup

Muscadine Grapes 

0.9mg (69% DV) in 10 grapes

Tempeh 

0.6mg (46% DV) in 1 cup

White Button Mushrooms (stir-fried)

 0.5mg (38% DV) in 1 cup sliced

Portobellos (exposed To Sunlight Or Uv) 

0.5mg (38% DV) in 1 cup sliced

Durian

0.5mg (37% DV) in 1 cup, chopped or diced

Cooked White Button Mushrooms

0.5mg (36% DV) in 1 cup pieces

Kidney Bean Sprouts 

0.5mg (35% DV) in 1 cup

Sun-dried Hot Chile Peppers

0.4mg (34% DV) in 1 cup

Cremini Mushrooms 

0.4mg (33% DV) in 1 cup whole

Cooked Spinach 

0.4mg (33% DV) in 1 cup 

Cooked Beet Greens 

0.4mg (32% DV) in 1 cup (1 Inch pieces) 

Dried Ancho Peppers 

0.4mg (29% DV) in 1 pepper

Tempeh Cooked 

0.4mg (27% DV) in 100 grams

Spirulina 

0.3mg (26% DV) in 100 grams 

Data from Myfooddata



​B3(Niacin)

General Purpose:

Vitamin B3 aids the digestive system, skin and nerve function. Another name for it is niacin. It is one of the eight B-complex water-soluble vitamins. Niacin helps the body break down carbohydrates, fats, and proteins into energy.

It also plays a role in gland and liver functions. Vitamin B3 is also helpful to cancer patients. Cancer patients have low levels of niacin. Niacin also lowers bad cholesterol( LDL) and triglycerides in the blood.

 Deficiency Problems:

  • Pellagra
  • Dementia
  • Indigestion
  • Canker sores
  • Depression
  • Swollen mouth
  • Headaches
  • Fatigue
  • Memory loss
  • Tremors
  • Diarrhea
  • Fatigue
  • ​Vomiting
  • Skin rash
  • Bright red tongue
  • Apathy
  • Depression



Recommended daily dose: 16 mg



Good Plant Sources With B3

Food

Amount 

Portobellos (exposed To Sunlight Or Uv) 

7.6mg (47% DV) in 1 cup sliced

Millet Flour 

7.2mg (45% DV) in 1 cup

Cooked White Button Mushrooms 

7mg (43% DV) in 1 cup pieces 

Whole Grain Sorghum Flour 

5.4mg (34% DV) in 1 cup

Kidney Bean Sprouts 

5.4mg (34% DV) in 1 cup 

Cooked Long-grain Brown Rice 

5.2mg (32% DV) in 1 cup 

Cooked Spelt 

5mg (31% DV) in 1 cup 

Fiddlehead Ferns 

5mg (31% DV) in 100 grams 

Maitake Mushrooms 

4.6mg (29% DV) in 1 cup diced

California Avocados 

4.4mg (27% DV) in 1 cup, pureed

Peanut Butter (chunk Style) 

4.4mg (27% DV) in 2 tbsp 

Tempeh 

4.4mg (27% DV) in 1 cup 

White Button Mushrooms (stir-fried) 

4.3mg (27% DV) in 1 cup sliced. 

Oyster Mushrooms 

4.3mg (27% DV) in 1 cup sliced

Roasted Peanuts 

4.1mg (25% DV) in 1 oz 

Kamut Cooked 

4mg (25% DV) in 1 cup 

Ground cherries 

3.9mg (25% DV) in 1 cup 

Portabella Mushrooms 

3.9mg (24% DV) in 1 cup diced

Raw Portabellas (Exposed to Sunlight or UV) 

3.9mg (24% DV) in 1 cup diced

Data from Myfooddata



​B5(Pantothenic Acid)

General Purpose:

Vitamin B5, also known as pantothenic acid, is a water-soluble vitamin. You can find it in all living cells within the body. B5 helps the body convert nutrients from food into energy. It also balances blood sugar, reduces bad cholesterol, and lowers high blood pressure.

Another function is preventing nerve damage, pain, and heart failure. It has a role in the synthesis of fat, hormones, and carbohydrates. B5 vitamins are crucial for maintaining the health of the nervous system. It also plays a part in producing sex and stress-related hormones from the adrenal glands.

 Deficiency Problems:

  • Fatigue

  • Irritability

  • Stomach pains

  • Burning feet

  • muscle cramps

  • Depression

  • Insomnia

  • Vomiting
  • Upper respiratory infections



 Recommended daily dose: 5 mg



Good Plant Sources With B5

Food

Amount 

Cooked Shiitake Mushrooms 

5.2mg (104% DV) in 1 cup pieces

Cooked White Button Mushrooms 

3.4mg (67% DV) in 1 cup pieces

California Avocados 

3.4mg (67% DV) in 1 cup, pureed

Florida Avocados 

2.1mg (43% DV) in 1 cup, pureed

Dry Roasted Sunflower Seeds 

2mg (40% DV) in 1 oz 

Jew's Ear 

2mg (39% DV) in 1 cup slices 

White Button Mushrooms (stir-fried) 

1.6mg (31% DV) in 1 cup sliced

Portobellos (exposed To Sunlight Or Uv)  

1.5mg (31% DV) in 1 cup sliced

Millet Flour 

1.5mg (30% DV) in 1 cup 

Hash Browns 

1.4mg (28% DV) in 1 cup 

Cooked Podded Peas 

1.4mg (27% DV) in 1 cup 

Mashed Sweet Potatoes 

1.3mg (26% DV) in 1 cup

Cremini Mushrooms 

1.3mg (26% DV) in 1 cup whole 

Canned Mushrooms 

1.3mg (25% DV) in 1 cup

Lentils (cooked)  

1.3mg (25% DV) in 1 cup

Cooked Escarole  

1.2mg (25% DV) in 1 cup

Pea Sprouts 

1.2mg (25% DV) in 1 cup 

Stir-fried Soybean Sprouts  

1.2mg (24% DV) in 100 grams

Split Peas 

1.2mg (23% DV) in 1 cup

Safflower Seeds 

1.1mg (23% DV) in 1 oz

Oyster Mushrooms 

1.1mg (22% DV) in 1 cup sliced

Canned Tomato Puree 

1.1mg (22% DV) in 1 cup

Data from Myfooddata



​B6(Pyridoxine)

General Purpose:

​Vitamin B6 is also known as pyridoxine. It has a vital role in a range of physical and psychological functions. B6 supports our metabolism and liver function.

It also promotes the health of the skin and eyes. Vitamin B6 also helps the body maintain a healthy nervous system. It also produces hemoglobin that carries oxygen in red blood cells.

 Deficiency Problems:

  • Mood swings
  • Muscle pains
  • Low energy or fatigue
  • Worsening symptoms of anemia

  • Confusion
  • Mouth sores
  • Worsening of PMS symptoms


Recommended daily dose: 1.7 mg



Good Plant Sources With B6

Food

Amount 

Mamey Sapote 

1.3mg (74% DV) in 1 cup 1 Inch pieces 

Extra Firm Fortified Tofu 

1.1mg (66% DV) in 1 cup 

Mammy Apple 

0.8mg (50% DV) in 1 fruit without refuse 

Durian 

0.8mg (45% DV) in 1 cup, chopped or diced

Hash Browns 

0.7mg (43% DV) in 1 cup 

California Avocados 

0.7mg (39% DV) in 1 cup, pureed

Poi 

0.7mg (39% DV) in 1 cup

Dried Ancho Peppers 

0.6mg (35% DV) in 1 pepper

Mashed Sweet Potatoes 

0.6mg (35% DV) in 1 cup

Shredded Coconut Meat (Sweetened) 

0.6mg (33% DV) in 1 cup

Bananas

 0.6mg (32% DV) in 1 cup, sliced

Jackfruit 

0.5mg (32% DV) in 1 cup, sliced

Baked Potatoes (with Skin) 

0.5mg (32% DV) in 1 potato medium

Serrano Peppers 

0.5mg (31% DV) in 1 cup, chopped

Avocados

 0.5mg (30% DV) in 1 avocado

Jute Potherb (molokhiya) (cooked) 

0.5mg (29% DV) in 1 cup

Fried Yellow Plantains 

0.5mg (29% DV) in 1 cup

Pistachio Nuts

 0.5mg (28% DV) in 1 oz (49 kernels)

Baked Potato (no Skin) 

0.5mg (28% DV) in 1 potato (2-1/3 Inch x 4-3/4 Inch)

Baked Potato (no Skin) 

Baked Potato (no Skin) 

Plantains 

0.4mg (26% DV) in 1 cup, sliced 

Banana Peppers 

0.4mg (26% DV) in 1 cup

Millet Flour 

0.4mg (26% DV) in 1 cup

Cooked Taro 

0.4mg (26% DV) in 1 cup, sliced

Cooked Spinach 

0.4mg (26% DV) in 1 cup

Data from Myfooddata



B12(Cobalamin)

General Purpose:

​Vitamin B12 contains the mineral cobalt. There are two forms of vitamin B12. One is methylcobalamin, and another one is

5-deoxyadenosylcobalamin. Vitamin B12 supports the health of nerve cells. It also helps neurons transmit messages between each other.

Vitamin B12 also helps with digestion and heart health. Bacteria synthesize B12, not plants. If you eat a vegan diet, you need to supplement with B12 or eat food fortified with it.

 Deficiency Problems:

  • Chronic fatigue
  • Joint pain
  • Feeling dizzy
  • Poor memory
  • Mood changes
  • Poor dental health
  • Nausea
  • Diarrhea
  • Muscle aches and weakness
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Difficulty concentrating 
  • Bleeding gums
  • Mouth sores 
  • Poor appetite 



Recommended daily dose: 2.4μg 



Good Sources Of B12

Food

Amount 

B12 Cyanocobalamin supplement 

1000 mg(41,667%) in 1 1000 mg pill 

B12 Methylcobalamin supplement 

1000 mg(41,667%) in 1 1000 mg pill

Soy milk or other plants milk fortified with B12

5.4μg (225% DV) in 16oz glass

Data from Myfooddata



​Choline

General Purpose:

Choline is a water-soluble nutrient. It supports our energy, brain function, and metabolism. Choline also helps nerves to communicate and muscles to move. It also acts as an anti-aging neurotransmitter and performs other essential processes.

 Deficiency Problems:

  • Fatigue
  • Cognitive decline
  • Muscle aches
  • Mood changes or disorders
  • Memory loss
  • Learning disabilities
  • Nerve damage


Recommended daily dose: 550 mg



Good Plant Sources With Choline

Food

Amount 

Canned Kidney Beans 

89.3mg (16% DV) in 1 cup 

Edamame

87.3mg (16% DV) in 1 cup 

Boiled Soybeans (edamame) 

81.7mg (15% DV) in 1 cup 

Navy Beans 

81.4mg (15% DV) in 1 cup

Canned Baked Beans 

80mg (15% DV) in 1 cup

Canned Red Kidney Beans 

78.1mg (14% DV) in 1 cup

Cooked Lima Beans 

75mg (14% DV) in 1 cup

Cooked Collards 

73mg (13% DV) in 1 cup, chopped

Tofu Prepared With Calcium 

71.4mg (13% DV) in 1 cup

Canned Navy Beans 

70.5mg (13% DV) in 1 cup

Chickpeas (garbanzo Beans) (cooked) 

70.2mg (13% DV) in 1 cup

Lentils (cooked)  

64.7mg (12% DV) in 1 cup

Split Peas 

64.3mg (12% DV) in 1 cup

Brussels Sprouts (cooked) 

63.3mg (12% DV) in 1 cup

Cooked Large White Beans 

62.8mg (11% DV) in 1 cup

Canned Lima Beans 

62.7mg (11% DV) in 1 cup

Broccoli (cooked) 

62.6mg (11% DV) in 1 cup chopped

Lima Beans 

61.1mg (11% DV) in 1 cup

Pinto Beans (cooked) 

60.4mg (11% DV) in 1 cup

Black Turtle Beans 

60.3mg (11% DV) in 1 cup

Mung Beans (cooked) 

59.4mg (11% DV) in 1 cup

Black Beans

56.1mg (10% DV) in 1 cup

Black-Eyed Peas (Cowpeas) 

55.1mg (10% DV) in 1 cup

Data from Myfooddata



​Folate

General Purpose:

Folate or vitamin B9 is one of many essential vitamins needed for copying and synthesizing DNA. It also helps the body produce new cells and supports nerve and immune functions. A diet high in folate-rich foods can help prevent cancer, and heart disease.

 Deficiency Problems:

  • Poor immune function
  • Poor digestion
  • Anemia
  • ​Canker sores in the mouth
  • Pale skin
  • Chronic low energy
  • Developmental problems
  • Swollen tongue
  • Changes in mood
  • Premature hair graying


Recommended daily dose: 40 µg



Good Plant Sources With Folate

Food

Amount 

Edamame 

482.1μg (121% ) in 1 cup 

Arrowroot 

405.6μg (101% ) in 1 cup, sliced 

Cranberry Beans (Roman Beans) 

366.4μg (92% ) in 1 cup 

Lentils (cooked) 

358.4μg (90% ) in 1 cup 

Black-Eyed Peas (Cowpeas) 

355.7μg (89% ) in 1 cup 

Mung Beans (cooked) 

321.2μg (80% ) in 1 cup 

Pinto Beans (cooked) 

294.1μg (74% ) in 1 cup 

Chickpeas (garbanzo Beans) (cooked) 

282.1μg (71% ) in 1 cup 

Asparagus (cooked)  

268.2μg (67% ) in 1 cup

Cooked Spinach 

262.8μg (66% ) in 1 cup

Black Beans 

256.3μg (64% ) in 1 cup

Navy Beans 

254.8μg (64% ) in 1 cup

Cooked Small White Beans

245.2μg (61% ) in 1 cup 

Mustard Spinach  

238.5μg (60% ) in 1 cup, chopped

Canned Asparagus 

232.3μg (58% ) in 1 cup 

Kidney Beans 

230.1μg (58% ) in 1 cup 

Cooked Red Kidney Beans 

230.1μg (58% ) in 1 cup 

Cooked Blackeyed Peas

209.6μg (52% ) in 1 cup 

California Avocados 

204.7μg (51% ) in 1 cup, pureed

Cooked Artichokes (globe Or French) 

199.9μg (50% ) in 1 cup

Cooked Green Soybeans 

199.8μg (50% ) in 1 cup

Great Northern Beans  

180.5μg (45% ) in 1 cup

Broad Beans (fava)  

176.8μg (44% ) in 1 cup

Data from Myfooddata



​Vitamin A

General Purpose:

Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin. It acts as a powerful antioxidant in the body. Vitamin A also plays a vital role in maintaining vision and neurological function. It also creates a healthy skin.

You can find Vitamin A in two primary forms: active vitamin A (retinol) and beta-carotene. Retinol comes from animal-derived foods. Fruits and vegetables contain beta-carotene. Your body needs to convert beta-carotene to active retinol.

 Deficiency Problems:

  • Xerophthalmia
  • Bitot’s spots
  • Thick or scaly skin
  • Stunted growth in children
  • Night blindness
  • Dry Lips
  • Impaired immunity


Recommended daily dose: 900 μg



Good Plant Sources With Vitamin A

Food

Amount 

Canned Pumpkin 

1906.1μg (212% DV) in 1 cup

Cooked Carrots  

1329.1μg (148% DV) in 1 cup slices

Cooked Butternut Squash 

1143.9μg (127% DV) in 1 cup, cubes

Mashed Sweet Potatoes 

1109.3μg (123% DV) in 1 cup

Cooked Sweet Potatoes 

1095.5μg (122% DV) in 1 medium (2 Inch Dia, 5 Inch long, raw)

Cooked Spinach 

943.2μg (105% DV) in 1 cup

Cooked Kale 

885.3μg (98% DV) in 1 cup, chopped

Cooked Mustard Greens 

865.2μg (96% DV) in 1 cup, chopped

Butternut Squash 

744.8μg (83% DV) in 1 cup, cubes

Mustard Spinach 

742.5μg (83% DV) in 1 cup, chopped

Cooked Mustard Spinach 

738μg (82% DV) in 1 cup, chopped

Cooked Collards 

722μg (80% DV) in 1 cup, chopped

Cooked Pumpkin 

705.6μg (78% DV) in 1 cup, mashed

Cooked Hubbard Squash

686.8μg (76% DV) in 1 cup, cubes

Baby Carrots 

586.5μg (65% DV) in 1 NLEA serving 

Cooked Beet Greens 

551.5μg (61% DV) in 1 cup (1 Inch pieces)

Cooked Turnip Greens 

548.6μg (61% DV) in 1 cup, chopped

​Cooked Swiss Chard 535.5μg

(60% DV) in 1 cup, chopped

Cooked Winter Squash 

535.1μg (59% DV) in 1 cup, cubes 

Sun-dried Hot Chile Peppers 

489.9μg (54% DV) in 1 cup

Vine spinach 

400μg (44% DV) in 100 grams

Pak-choi (Bok Choy) (cooked)

 360.4μg (40% DV) in 1 cup, shredded 

Cooked Dandelion Greens 

359.1μg (40% DV) in 1 cup, chopped

Data from Myfooddata



Vitamin C 

General Purpose:

Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid is a water-soluble vitamin. You can find it in many types of fruits and vegetables. It acts as an antioxidant to neutralize free radicals. Vitamin C also reduces the risk of inflammation and disease.

Your body uses vitamin C to synthesize compounds like collagen. Vitamin C also improves skin health and immunity. Cancer patients often have low vitamin C levels. 

 Deficiency Problems:

  • Slow wound healing
  • Easy bruising
  • Swollen gums
  • ​Frequent nosebleeds
  • Dry, scaly skin
  • Dry, splitting hair
  • Bleeding gums
  • Fatigue
  • Weakened immune system
  • Swollen joints
  • Gingivitis


Recommended daily dose: 90 mg



Good Plant Sources With Vitamin C

Food

Amount 

Guavas 

376.7mg (419% DV) in 1 cup

Sweet Yellow Peppers 

341.3mg (379% DV) in 1 large pepper

Cooked Red Bell Peppers 

230.9mg (257% DV) in 1 cup, strips

Dried Jujube 

217.6mg (242% DV) in 100 grams 

European Black Currants 

202.7mg (225% DV) in 1 cup

Mustard Spinach 

195mg (217% DV) in 1 cup, chopped.

Kiwifruit 

166.9mg (185% DV) in 1 cup, sliced

Sweet Red Bell Peppers 

152mg (169% DV) in 1 medium pepper

Litchis 

135.9mg (151% DV) in 1 cup

Green Bell Peppers 

119.8mg (133% DV) in 1 cup, chopped

Mammy Apple 

118.4mg (132% DV) in 1 fruit

Cooked Mustard Spinach 

117mg (130% DV) in 1 cup, chopped

Pummelo 

115.9mg (129% DV) in 1 cup, sections

Lemons 

112.4mg (125% DV) in 1 cup, sections

Hot Green Chili Peppers 

109.1mg (121% DV) in 1 pepper

Citrus Green Tea 

104.1mg (116% DV) in 1 cup

Banana Peppers 

102.5mg (114% DV) in 1 cup

Vine spinach

102mg (113% DV) in 100 grams 

Broccoli (cooked) 

101.2mg (112% DV) in 1 cup chopped

Cooked Green Bell Peppers 

100.4mg (112% DV) in 1 cup, chopped or strips

Strawberries 

97.6mg (108% DV) in 1 cup, sliced.

Navel Oranges 

97.5mg (108% DV) in 1 cup sections, without membranes

Brussels Sprouts (cooked) 

96.7mg (107% DV) in 1 cup

Oranges 

95.8mg (106% DV) in 1 cup, sections

Data from Myfooddata



Vitamin D 

General Purpose:

Vitamin D comes from the sun. We need it to absorb calcium and create strong bones. Vitamin D also strengthens the immune system. Your skin produces Vitamin D from sun exposure. Those who have dark skin or are obese are at a higher risk for vitamin D deficiency.

Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin stored in the liver and fatty tissues. Our bodies make vitamin D from UV-B sunshine rays. Few dietary products contain vitamin D. Try to get it by staying in the sun instead of using supplements.

 Deficiency Problems:

  • Osteoporosis
  • High blood pressure
  • Autoimmune diseases
  • Insomnia
  • Diabetes
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Psoriasis
  • Autism
  • Heart disease
  • Cancer
  • Depression
  • Arthritis
  • Asthma
  • Chronic pain
  • Fibromyalgia


Recommended daily dose: 1000 IU



Good Vitamin D Sources

Food

Amount 

Sunshine

100%

Vitamin D2 & D3 Supplements

1000 IU (100% DV) in 1000 IU pill

Raw Crimini Mushrooms (Exposed To Sunlight Or UV) 

27.8μg (139% DV) in 1 cup whole

Raw Portabellas (Exposed to Sunlight or UV)

24.4μg (122% DV) in 1 cup diced

Maitake Mushrooms 

19.7μg (98% DV) in 1 cup diced Raw White

Button Mushrooms (Exposed To Sunlight Or UV) 

18.3μg (92% DV) in 1 cup pieces or slices

Portobellos (exposed To Sunlight Or Uv) 

15.9μg (79% DV) in 1 cup sliced

Soy Milk fortified with vitamin D 

5.8μg (29% DV) in a 16oz glass

Data from Myfooddata



Vitamin E 

General Purpose:

Vitamin E is best known for its antioxidant properties. It reduces free radical damage and protects the body’s cells. Many organs in the body need it to function well. Vitamin E helps maintain healthy skin and eyes. It also strengthens the body's natural defense against illness and infections.

 Deficiency Problems:

  • Muscle weakness
  • Numbness and tingling
  • Immune system problems 
  • Walking difficulties
  • Vision deterioration


Recommended daily dose: 15 mg



Good Plant Sources With Vitamin E

Food

Amount 

Dried Sunflower Seeds 

9.8mg (66% DV) in 1 oz

Dry Roasted Sunflower Seeds 

7.4mg (49% DV) in 1 oz

Unsweetened Almond Milk 

7.4mg (49% DV) in 1 cup

Almonds 

7.3mg (49% DV) in 1 oz (23 whole kernels)

Dry Roasted Almonds 

6.8mg (45% DV) in 1 oz (22 whole kernels)

Florida Avocados 

6.1mg (41% DV) in 1 cup, pureed

Poi 

5.5mg (37% DV) in 1 cup

Canned Tomato Puree 

4.9mg (33% DV) in 1 cup

Fortified Silken Tofu 

4.8mg (32% DV) in 1/5 package

Toasted Wheat Germ 

4.5mg (30% DV) in 1 oz

California Avocados 

4.5mg (30% DV) in 1 cup, pureed

Dry Roasted Hazelnuts 

4.3mg (29% DV) in 1 oz

Hazelnuts 

4.3mg (28% DV) in 1 oz (21 whole kernels)

Avocados 

4.2mg (28% DV) in 1 avocado, Florida or California

Almond Butter 

3.9mg (26% DV) in 1 tbsp cooked

Taro 

3.9mg (26% DV) in 1 cup, sliced

Almond Paste 

3.8mg (26% DV) in 1 oz

​Cooked Spinach

3.7mg (25% DV) in 1 cup

Mamey Sapote 

3.7mg (25% DV) in 1 cup 1 Inch pieces

Cooked Swiss Chard 

3.3mg (22% DV) in 1 cup, chopped

Canned Asparagus 

3mg (20% DV) in 1 cup

Mashed Sweet Potatoes 

2.8mg (19% DV) in 1 cup

Cooked Turnip Greens 

2.7mg (18% DV) in 1 cup, chopped

Asparagus (cooked) 

2.7mg (18% DV) in 1 cup

Cooked Butternut Squash 

2.6mg (18% DV) in 1 cup, cubes

Kiwifruit 

2.6mg (18% DV) in 1 cup, sliced

Cooked Beet Greens 

2.6mg (17% DV) in 1 cup (1 Inch pieces)

Canned Pumpkin 

2.6mg (17% DV) in 1 cup

Broccoli (cooked) 

2.3mg (15% DV) in 1 cup chopped

Cooked Red Bell Peppers 

2.2mg (15% DV) in 1 cup, strips

Data from Myfooddata



Vitamin K 

General Purpose:

Vitamin K is an essential fat-soluble vitamin. It is vital for our bone and heart health. Vitamin K also helps our brain function, metabolism and protects against cancer.

There are two forms of vitamin K: vitamin K1 and vitamin K2. Another name for vitamin K1 is phytonadione. K2 is also known as menaquinone.

You can find vitamin K1 in vegetables. K2 comes from fermented dairy products and bacteria in our guts.

 Deficiency Problems:

  • Heart disease
  • Tooth decay
  • Easy bruising
  • GI tract bleeding
  • Blood in the urine or stool
  • Weakened bones
  • ​Cancer
  • Heavy menstrual periods


Recommended daily dose: 120μg



Good Plant Sources With Vitamin K

Food

Amount 

Cooked Kale 

1062.1μg (885% DV) in 1 cup, chopped

Parsley 

984μg (820% DV) in 1 cup chopped

Cooked Spinach 

888.5μg (740% DV) in 1 cup

Cooked Mustard Greens 

829.8μg (691% DV) in 1 cup, chopped

Cooked Collards 

772.5μg (644% DV) in 1 cup, chopped

Cooked Beet Greens 

697μg (581% DV) in 1 cup (1 Inch pieces)

Cooked Dandelion Greens 

579μg (482% DV) in 1 cup, chopped

Cooked Swiss Chard 

572.8μg (477% DV) in 1 cup, chopped

Cooked Turnip Greens 

529.3μg (441% DV) in 1 cup, chopped

Cooked New Zealand Spinach  

525.6μg (438% DV) in 1 cup, chopped

Cooked Garden Cress 

517.6μg (431% DV) in 1 cup

Dandelion Greens 

428.1μg (357% DV) in 1 cup, chopped

Cooked Escarole 

317.9μg (265% DV) in 1 cup

Swiss Chard 

298.8μg (249% DV) in 1 cup

Garden Cress 

271μg (226% DV) in 1 cup

Broccoli (cooked) 

220.1μg (183% DV) in 1 cup chopped

Brussels Sprouts (cooked)

218.9μg (182% DV) in 1 cup 

​Cooked Broccoli Raab

217.6μg (181% DV) in 1 NLEA serving

New Zealand Spinach 

188.7μg (157% DV) in 1 cup, chopped

Cooked Cabbage 

163.1μg (136% DV) in 1 cup

Collards 

157.4μg (131% DV) in 1 cup, chopped

Brussels Sprouts (raw) 

155.8μg (130% DV) in 1 cup

Beet Greens (raw) 

152μg (127% DV) in 1 cup

Spinach 

144.9μg (121% DV) in 1 cup

Mustard Greens 

144.2μg (120% DV) in 1 cup, chopped

Data from Myfooddata



The next thing you need from your diet is minerals.

6

Chapter 6: Why We Need Minerals And Where To Find Them

Minerals are micronutrients that come from inorganic matter like the soil. We need them to maintain good health.

Minerals take part in thousands of metabolic reactions in the body. They support our growth, bone health, fluid balance, and other processes. Plants are the most direct source of minerals. They absorb minerals from the soil.

Here is a list of common minerals and where to find them:

Calcium 

General Purpose:

​Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the human body. About 99% of our calcium exists inside our skeleton and teeth. One primary function of calcium is to create strong bones.

Your body uses calcium to balance its pH level when you overconsume animal products. It uses calcium from your bones and teeth to neutralize the acids. The result is a massive increase in calcium loss into the urine.
Countries that drink a lot of milk have higher rates of osteoporosis.

Plant foods contain generous amounts of calcium. You don't need to get it from dairy. Too much animal protein robs the body of calcium and weakens its bones. A diet based on starches with added fruits and vegetables preserve skeletal strength.

Calcium also controls our magnesium, phosphorus, and potassium levels in the blood. Remember that you also need to get enough Vitamin D to absorb calcium!

 Deficiency Problems:

  • Osteoporosis
  • Tooth decay
  • Weakness
  • Muscle spasms
  • Delays in children’s development
  • Heart rhythm problems
  • Blood clotting
  • ​Cancer
  • ​Fatigue
  • Irritability
  • Blood pressure problems


Recommended daily dose: *1300mg



Good Plant Sources With Calcium

Food

Amount 

Firm Tofu 

1721.2mg (132% DV) in 1 cup

Tofu Prepared With Calcium 

868mg (67% DV) in 1 cup

Soy Milk 

602.6mg (46% DV) in a 16oz glass

Unsweetened Soy Milk 

597.8mg (46% DV) in a 16oz glass

Extra Firm Fortified Tofu  

556mg (43% DV) in 1 cup

Unsweetened Almond Milk 

516.1mg (40% DV) in 1 cup

Fortified Silken Tofu 

358.5mg (28% DV) in 1/5 package

Mustard Spinach 

315mg (24% DV) in 1 cup, chopped

Silk (soymilk) 

298.9mg (23% DV) in 1 cup

Cooked Mustard Spinach 

284.4mg (22% DV) in 1 cup, chopped

Unsweetened Rice Milk 

283.2mg (22% DV) in 8 fl oz

Sesame Seeds (toasted) 

280.9mg (22% DV) in 1 oz

Cooked Collards 

267.9mg (21% DV) in 1 cup, chopped

Cooked Green Soybeans 

261mg (20% DV) in 1 cup

Tofu Extra Firm Prepared With Nigari  

256.6mg (20% DV) in 1/5 block

Firm Tofu (With Calcium and Magnesium) 

253.3mg (19% DV) in 1/2 cup

Cooked Spinach 

244.8mg (19% DV) in 1 cup

​Cooked Nopales

244.4mg (19% DV) in 1 cup

Cooked Blackeyed Peas 

211.2mg (16% DV) in 1 cup

Data from Myfooddata

*The recommended daily dose is an inflated number. The dairy industry influenced the government to set the RDA to 1300 mg. If you eat a plant-based diet, you only need 500 mg of calcium per day to maintain strong bones.

Most western countries have a calcium intake of 800-1000 mg/day. Developing countries consume 300-500 mg of calcium per day from plants. There is no evidence that people with such a low intake have any problems with bones or teeth.


C​opper

General Purpose:

​​Copper is an essential mineral that benefits our bones and nerve health. It is also part of the production of hemoglobin in red blood cells. Copper also plays a critical role in maintaining a healthy metabolism. You also need it to carry out many enzyme reactions and preserve the health of connective tissues.

 Deficiency Problems:

  • Fatigue
  • Osteoporosis
  • Low body temperature
  • Brittle bones
  • Joint pain
  • Hair thinning or balding
  • Bruising Skin
  • Arthritis
  • Paleness
  • ​​Anemia
  • Muscle soreness
  • ​A stunt in growth
  • Unexplained weight loss


Recommended daily dose: 0.9mg



Good Plant Sources With Copper

Food

Amount 

Rowal 

2.4mg (269% DV) in 1 cup

Cooked Shiitake Mushrooms

1.3mg (144% DV) in 1 cup pieces

Firm Tofu

1mg (106% DV) in 1 cup

Tempeh 

0.9mg (103% DV) in 1 cup

Cooked White Button Mushrooms 

0.8mg (87% DV) in 1 cup pieces

Mammy Apple

0.7mg (81% DV) in 1 fruit 

Canned Tomato Puree 

0.7mg (80% DV) in 1 cup

Florida Avocados 

0.7mg (79% DV) in 1 cup, pureed

Mashed Sweet Potatoes 

0.7mg (79% DV) in 1 cup

Sesame Seeds (toasted) 

0.7mg (78% DV) in 1 oz

Boiled Soybeans (edamame) 

0.7mg (78% DV) in 1 cup

Adzuki Beans 

0.7mg (76% DV) in 1 cup

Millet Flour 

0.6mg (71% DV) in 1 cup

Dry-roasted Cashews 

0.6mg (70% DV) in 1 oz

Cashews (raw) 

0.6mg (69% DV) in 1 oz

Spirulina 

0.6mg (66% DV) in 100 grams

Natto 

0.6mg (65% DV) in 1/2 cup

Chickpeas (cooked) 

0.6mg (64% DV) in 1 cup

Cooked Teff 

0.6mg (63% DV) in 1 cup

Canned Navy Beans 

0.5mg (61% DV) in 1 cup

Tempeh Cooked 

0.5mg (60% DV) in 100 grams

Edamame 

0.5mg (59% DV) in 1 cup

Stir-fried Soybean Sprouts 

0.5mg (59% DV) in 100 grams

Data from Myfooddata


​Iron

General Purpose:

Iron helps to produce hemoglobin found in red blood cells. It is also a nutrient needed to maintain general well-being and energy levels. Iron plays a part in many enzyme reactions that help our bodies to digest food and absorb nutrients. It also supports your brain, heart, skin, hair, and nails.

 Deficiency Problems:

  • Anemia
  • Pale or yellowing of the skin
  • Trouble exercising
  • Changes in appetite
  • Changes in weight
  • Trouble concentrating

  • Chronic fatigue ​
  • Shortness of breath  
  • Abnormal heartbeats
  • Muscle weakness
  • Trouble sleeping
  • ​Coughs
  • Sores on mouth or tongue


Recommended daily dose: 18mg



Good Plant Sources With Iron

Food

Amount 

Tofu Prepared With Calcium 

13.3mg (74% DV) in 1 cup

Boiled Soybeans (edamame) 

8.8mg (49% DV) in 1 cup

Morel Mushrooms 

8mg (45% DV) in 1 cup

Natto 

7.6mg (42% DV) in 1/2 cup

Coconut Milk 

7.5mg (41% DV) in 1 cup

Firm Tofu 

6.7mg (37% DV) in 1 cup

Cooked Large White Beans 

6.6mg (37% DV) in 1 cup

Lentils (cooked) 

6.6mg (37% DV) in 1 cup

Cooked Spinach 

6.4mg (36% DV) in 1 cup

Mammy Apple 

5.9mg (33% DV) in 1 fruit 

Citronella (lemon Grass) 

5.5mg (30% DV) in 1 cup

California Red Kidney Beans 

5.3mg (29% DV) in 1 cup

Black Turtle Beans 

5.3mg (29% DV) in 1 cup cooked

Red Kidney Beans 

5.2mg (29% DV) in 1 cup

Cooked Amaranth 

5.2mg (29% DV) in 1 cup

Cooked Teff 

5.2mg (29% DV) in 1 cup

Jerusalem-artichokes Raw

5.1mg (28% DV) in 1 cup slices

Dried Jujube 

5.1mg (28% DV) in 100 grams

Cooked Small White Beans 

5.1mg (28% DV) in 1 cup

Rowal 

5mg (28% DV) in 1 cup

Canned Navy Beans 

4.8mg (27% DV) in 1 cup

Chickpeas (cooked) 

4.7mg (26% DV) in 1 cup

Millet Flour 

4.7mg (26% DV) in 1 cup

Adzuki Beans 

4.6mg (26% DV) in 1 cup

Palm Hearts (canned) 

4.6mg (25% DV) in 1 cup

Data from Myfooddata


​​Magnesium

General Purpose:

​Magnesium is an element and mineral found throughout nature. It is the fourth most abundant mineral in the body. Your bones, muscles, and soft tissues store about 99% of your body’s total magnesium.

When you’re under a lot of emotional stress, your body will use more magnesium. Magnesium is one of the most vital minerals you need to maintain optimal health. It is also part of more than 300 reactions in the body.

 Deficiency Problems:

  • Leg Cramps
  • Fibromyalgia
  • High Blood Pressure
  • Fatigue
  • Headaches
  • Insomnia
  • Anxiety
  • Type II Diabetes
  • Migraines
  • Osteoporosis 


Recommended daily dose: 420mg



Good Plant Sources With Magnesium

Food

Amount 

Hemp Seeds 

198.8mg (47% DV) in 1oz

Dried Pumpkin/Squash Seeds 

168.1mg (40% DV) in 1 oz

Cooked Amaranth 

159.9mg (38% DV) in 1 cup

Cooked Spinach 

156.6mg (37% DV) in 1 cup

Cooked Swiss Chard 

150.5mg (36% DV) in 1 cup, chopped

Whole Grain Sorghum Flour 

148.8mg (35% DV) in 1 cup

Boiled Soybeans (edamame)  

147.9mg (35% DV) in 1 cup

Watermelon Seed Kernels Dried 

146.3mg (35% DV) in 1 oz

Firm Tofu 

146.2mg (35% DV) in 1 cup

Mammy Apple 

135.4mg (32% DV) in 1 fruit

Tempeh 

134.5mg (32% DV) in 1 cup

Cooked Teff 

126mg (30% DV) in 1 cup

Cooked Lima Beans 

125.8mg (30% DV) in 1 cup

Canned Navy Beans 

123.1mg (29% DV) in 1 cup

Cooked Small White Beans 

121.7mg (29% DV) in 1 cup

Black Beans 

120.4mg (29% DV) in 1 cup

Adzuki Beans 

119.6mg (28% DV) in 1 cup

Quinoa Cooked 

118.4mg (28% DV) in 1 cup

Mungo Beans (cooked) 

5.1mg (28% DV) in 1 cup

Cooked Large White Beans 

112.8mg (27% DV) in 1 cup

Flax Seeds 

111.3mg (27% DV) in 1oz

Tamarinds  

110.4mg (26% DV) in 1 cup, pulp

Data from Myfooddata


​Manganese

General Purpose:

​Manganese is an essential nutrient that’s often tied to iron and other minerals. It plays a role in the synthesis of nutrients like cholesterol, carbohydrates, and proteins. Manganese is also part of the production of digestive enzymes, bone development, and the immune system.

 Deficiency Problems:

  • Osteoporosis
  • Chronic fatigue
  • Getting sick often
  • Hormonal imbalances
  • Impaired glucose sensitivity
  • Infertility

  • Anemia
  • Low immunity
  • Premenstrual syndrome (PMS)
  • Changes in digestion and appetite


Recommended daily dose: 2.3mg



Good Plant Sources With Manganese

Food

Amount 

Dried Jujube 100 grams 

31.1mg (1351% DV) in

Cooked Teff 

7.2mg (313% DV) in 1 cup

Toasted Wheat Germ 

5.7mg (246% DV) in 1 oz

Wild Blueberries (frozen) 

4mg (175% DV) in 1 cup, frozen

Citronella (lemon Grass) 

3.5mg (152% DV) in 1 cup

Firm Tofu 

3mg (129% DV) in 1 cup 

Dried Sweetened Mango 

2.8mg (123% DV) in 1 oz

Mashed Sweet Potatoes 

2.5mg (110% DV) in 1 cup

Pine Nuts (dried) 

2.5mg (109% DV) in 1 oz (167 kernels)

Shredded Coconut Meat 

2.3mg (100% DV) in 1 cup, shredded

Hemp Seeds 

2.2mg (94% DV) in 1oz

Tempeh 

2.2mg (94% DV) in 1 cup

Cooked Brown Rice 

2.1mg (93% DV) in 1 cup

Cooked Lima Beans 

2.1mg (93% DV) in 1 cup

Cooked Spelt 

2.1mg (92% DV) in 1 cup

Cooked Oat Bran 

2.1mg (92% DV) in 1 cup

Cooked Amaranth 

2.1mg (91% DV) in 1 cup

Palm Hearts (canned) 

2mg (88% DV) in 1 cup

Cooked Long-grain Brown Rice 

2mg (86% DV) in 1 cup

Butternuts (dried) 

1.9mg (81% DV) in 1 oz

Loganberries (frozen) 

1.8mg (80% DV) in 1 cup, unthawed

Kamut Cooked 

1.8mg (77% DV) in 1 cup

Hazelnuts 

1.8mg (76% DV) in 1 oz (21 whole kernels)

Canned Lima Beans  

1.7mg (75% DV) in 1 cup

Coconut Milk 

1.7mg (75% DV) in 1 cup

Data from Myfooddata


​Phosphorous

General Purpose:

​Phosphorus is an essential mineral involved in hundreds of cellular activities. It helps skeletal and organ health. Other key functions include balancing hormones and absorbing nutrients from the food. Phosphorus is the second most abundant element in the human body. We also need it to boost our energy levels.

 Deficiency Problems:

  • Osteoporosis
  • Joint and muscle aches
  • Tooth decay
  • Anxiety
  • Stunted growth
  • Changes in appetite
  • Trouble exercising
  • Numbness and tingling
  • Weight problems 


Recommended daily dose: 1250mg



Good Plant Sources With Phosphorous

Food

Amount 

Firm Tofu 

478.8mg (38% DV) in 1 cup

Hemp Seeds 

468.6mg (37% DV) in 1oz

Tempeh 

441.6mg (35% DV) in 1 cup

Boiled Soybeans (edamame) 

421.4mg (34% DV) in 1 cup

Adzuki Beans 

386.4mg (31% DV) in 1 cup

Cooked Amaranth 

364.1mg (29% DV) in 1 cup

Lentils (cooked) 

356.4mg (29% DV) in 1 cup

Canned Navy Beans 

351.1mg (28% DV) in 1 cup

Dried Pumpkin/ Squash Seeds 

350.2mg (28% DV) in 1 oz

Millet Flour 

339.2mg (27% DV) in 1 cup

Whole Grain Sorghum Flour 

336.4mg (27% DV) in 1 cup

Dry Roasted Sunflower Seeds 

328mg (26% DV) in 1 oz

Toasted Wheat Germ 

325.5mg (26% DV) in 1 oz

Cooked Small White Beans 

302.5mg (24% DV) in 1 cup

Cooked Teff  

302.4mg (24% DV) in 1 cup

Great Northern Beans 

292.1mg (23% DV) in 1 cup

Extra Firm Fortified Tofu 

291.5mg (23% DV) in 1 cup

Cooked Spelt  

291mg (23% DV) in 1 cup

Cooked Green Soybeans 

284.4mg (23% DV) in 1 cup

Black Turtle Beans 

281.2mg (22% DV) in 1 cup

Quinoa Cooked  

281.2mg (22% DV) in 1 cup

Mungo Beans (cooked)  

280.8mg (22% DV) in 1 cup

Data from Myfooddata


​Potassium

General Purpose:

​Potassium is a vital electrolyte. It's part of many cellular functions, including regulating heartbeat rhythms and nerve impulses. Potassium allows muscles to contract and prevents muscle aches. It also supports digestive health and boosts your energy levels.

 Deficiency Problems:

  • Increased blood pressure
  • Higher risk of kidney stones
  • Poor concentration and memory
  • Reduced bone formation
  • Joint pain
  • Greater risk for heart disease
  • Fatigue
  • Trouble sleeping
  • Higher risk for diabetes and insulin resistance
  • Muscle weakness and spasms 


Recommended daily dose: 4700mg



Good Plant Sources With Potassium

Food

Amount 

Cooked Beet Greens 1309mg 

1309mg (28% DV) in 1 cup (1 Inch pieces)

Adzuki Beans 

1223.6mg (26% DV) in 1 cup

California Avocados 

1166.1mg (25% DV) in 1 cup, pureed

Canned Tomato Puree 

1097.5mg (23% DV) in 1 cup

Breadfruit 

1078mg (23% DV) in 1 cup

Durian 

1059.5mg (23% DV) in 1 cup, chopped or diced

Cooked Large White Beans 

1004.2mg (21% DV) in 1 cup

Avocados 

974.9mg (21% DV) in 1 avocado, Florida or California

Cooked Green Soybeans 

970.2mg (21% DV) in 1 cup

Cooked Lima Beans 

969mg (21% DV) in 1 cup

Cooked Swiss Chard 

960.8mg (20% DV) in 1 cup, chopped

Lima Beans 

955mg (20% DV) in 1 cup

Baked Red Potatoes 

942.9mg (20% DV) in 1 medium potato 

Baked Potatoes (with Skin) 

925.6mg (20% DV) in 1 potato medium

Cooked Yam  

911.2mg (19% DV) in 1 cup, cubes

Hash Browns 

898.6mg (19% DV) in 1 cup

Baked Acorn Squash 

895.9mg (19% DV) in 1 cup, cubes

Boiled Soybeans (edamame) 

885.8mg (19% DV) in 1 cup

Fried Yellow Plantains 

856.8mg (18% DV) in 1 cup

Cooked Spinach 

838.8mg (18% DV) in 1 cup

Canned Refried Beans 

832.5mg (18% DV) in 1 cup

Cooked Small White Beans 

828.8mg (18% DV) in 1 cup

Passion Fruit (granadilla) 

821.3mg (17% DV) in 1 cup

Florida Avocados 

807.3mg (17% DV) in 1 cup, pureed

Yautia 

807.3mg (17% DV) in 1 cup, sliced

Data from Myfooddata


​Selenium

General Purpose:

​Selenium is a trace mineral found in the soil. It increases immunity and antioxidant activity. Selenium also plays a crucial role in maintaining a healthy metabolism. Consuming plenty of selenium has positive antiviral effects. It also reduces the risk of cancer and thyroid diseases.

 Deficiency Problems:

  • Infertility in men and women

  • Muscle weakness

  • Mental fog

  • Weakened immune system
  • Fatigue

  • Hair loss



Recommended daily dose: 55μg



Good Plant Sources With Selenium

Food

Amount 

Brazil nuts 

544.4μg (990% DV) in 1 oz (6 kernels)

Kamut Cooked 

54.9μg (100% DV) in 1 cup

Firm Tofu 

43.8μg (80% DV) in 1 cup

Cooked Couscous 

43.2μg (78% DV) in 1 cup, cooked

Whole Wheat Pasta 

42.5μg (77% DV) in 1 cup spaghetti not packed

Millet Flour  

38.9μg (71% DV) in 1 cup

Cooked Shiitake Mushrooms 

36μg (65% DV) in 1 cup pieces

Cooked Pasta (unenriched) 

32.7μg (60% DV) in 1 cup spaghetti not packed

Canned Straw Mushrooms 

27.7μg (50% DV) in 1 cup

Portobellos (exposed To Sunlight Or Uv) 

26.5μg (48% DV) in 1 cup sliced

Cremini Mushrooms 

22.6μg (41% DV) in 1 cup whole

Raw Crimini Mushrooms (Exposed To Sunlight Or UV) 

22.6μg (41% DV) in 1 cup whole

Dry Roasted Sunflower Seeds 

22.5μg (41% DV) in 1 oz

Tofu Prepared With Calcium 

22.1μg (40% DV) in 1 cup

Cooked White Button Mushrooms 

18.6μg (34% DV) in 1 cup pieces

Toasted Wheat Germ 

18.5μg (34% DV) in 1 oz

Cooked Oat Bran 

16.9μg (31% DV) in 1 cup

Portabella Mushrooms 

16μg (29% DV) in 1 cup diced

Chia Seeds 

15.7μg (29% DV) in 1 oz

Shredded Coconut Meat 

15.5μg (28% DV) in 1 cup, shredded

Canned Navy Beans 

15.2μg (28% DV) in 1 cup

White Button Mushrooms (stir-fried) 

15μg (27% DV) in 1 cup sliced

Dried Sunflower Seeds 

14.8μg (27% DV) in 1 oz

Data from Myfooddata


​Sodium

General Purpose:

​Sodium is often known as salt. You can find it in almost everything you eat and drink. Salt is a natural flavoring used for thousands of years. Sodium balances fluids and benefits the brain, muscles, and the nervous system. It also helps nutrient absorption.

Salt can either be unrefined or refined. Table salt often comes from underground salt deposits. It’s heavily processed to eliminate healthy minerals.

Sea salt can be either unrefined or refined. Try to use the unprocessed version. Himalaya salt is also a good salt.

Even though salt has some health benefits, you don’t want to overdo it. Too much sodium may increase your risk of high blood pressure.

The recommended sodium level per day is between 1500-2300 mg(0.64-1 tsp). Due to the increased sodium loss through sweat, these guidelines may not apply to active people.

Today, Americans consume much more sodium than health authorities recommend. They eat an average of about 3,400 mg of sodium per day. Processed foods account for an estimated 75% of the total sodium consumed. A significant source of sodium in most diets comes from sodium chloride.

If you’re sensitive to salt, limit its use. As you remove animal products from your diet, your taste buds become more sensitive. Use salt sparingly and only sprinkle a little bit to make the food enjoyable. Avoid eating foods with too much-added salt.

 Deficiency Problems:

  • Muscle cramps or twitching
  • Tiredness
  • Headaches

  • Problems walking
  • Nausea
  • Shortness of breath
  • Swelling or fluid buildup in the body


Recommended daily dose: 1500-2300mg



Good Plant Sources With Sodium

Food

Amount 

Sea/Himalaya Salt 

2325.5mg (97% DV) in 1 Tsp

Sour Pickled Cucumber 

1872.4mg (78% DV) in 1 cup

Dry Roasted Sunflower Seeds (With Salt) 

1706.3mg (71% DV) in 1 oz

Canned Refried Beans 

1040.6mg (43% DV) in 1 cup

Tamari 

1005.5mg (42% DV) in 1 tbsp

Sauerkraut  

938.6mg (39% DV) in 1 cup

Canned Navy Beans 

880.3mg (37% DV) in 1 cup

Soy Sauce 

878.9mg (37% DV) in 1 tbsp

Canned Baked Beans 

871.2mg (36% DV) in 1 cup

Canned Mature (White) Lima Beans

809.8mg (34% DV) in 1 cup

Canned Kidney Beans 

757.8mg (32% DV) in 1 cup

Kimchi 

747mg (31% DV) in 1 cup

Canned Straw Mushrooms 

698.9mg (29% DV) in 1 cup

Canned Asparagus 

694.5mg (29% DV) in 1 cup

Canned Mushrooms  

663mg (28% DV) in 1 cup

Canned Red Kidney Beans  

655.4mg (27% DV) in 1 cup

Miso

633.8mg (26% DV) in 1 tbsp

Palm Hearts (canned)  

622mg (26% DV) in 1 cup

Canned Hominy 

569.3mg (24% DV) in 1 cup

Green Chili Peppers 

551.8mg (23% DV) in 1 cup

Hash Browns 

533.5mg (22% DV) in 1 cup

Stewed Tomatoes 

459.6mg (19% DV) in 1 cup

Cooked Beet Greens 

347mg (14% DV) in 1 cup (1 Inch pieces)

Pickled Beets  

338.2mg (14% DV) in 1 cup slices

Stinky Tofu 

316mg (13% DV) in 1 block

Data from Myfooddata


​Zinc

General Purpose:

Zinc is a type of metal and an essential trace element. Your body needs it in small amounts to maintain its health and perform various functions each day. Zinc helps with hormone production, growth, and repairment. It improves immunity and aids your digestion. Another role of zinc includes its ability to act as an anti-inflammatory agent. Your body also needs it during cell division.

 Deficiency Problems:

  • Changes in appetite
  • Weight problems
  • Hair loss
  • Chronic fatigue
  • Hormonal problems
  • ​Poor concentration and memory
  • Nerve dysfunction
  • Changes in ability to taste and smell
  • Digestive problems
  • Infertility
  • Low immunity
  • Slowed ability to heal wounds


Recommended daily dose: 11mg



Good Plant Sources With Zinc

Food

Amount 

Canned Baked Beans 

5.8mg (53% DV) in 1 cup

Toasted Wheat Germ 

4.7mg (43% DV) in 1 oz

Adzuki Beans 

4.1mg (37% DV) in 1 cup

Firm Tofu 

4mg (36% DV) in 1 cup

Kamut Cooked  

3.2mg (29% DV) in 1 cup

Millet Flour 

3.1mg (28% DV) in 1 cup

Watermelon Seeds  Dried 

2.9mg (26% DV) in 1 oz

Hemp Seeds 

2.8mg (26% DV) in 1oz

Cooked Teff 

2.8mg (25% DV) in 1 cup

Natto 

2.7mg (24% DV) in 1/2 cup

Lentils (cooked) 

2.5mg (23% DV) in 1 cup

Chickpeas (cooked) 

2.5mg (23% DV) in 1 cup

Cooked Large White Beans 

2.5mg (22% DV) in 1 cup

Cooked Oatmeal 

2.3mg (21% DV) in 1 cup

Dried Pumpkin/Squash Seeds 

2.2mg (20% DV) in 1 oz

Black-Eyed Peas (Cowpeas)

2.2mg (20% DV) in 1 cup

Cooked Wild Rice 

2.2mg (20% DV) in 1 cup

Edamame 

2.1mg (19% DV) in 1 cup

Cooked Amaranth 

2.1mg (19% DV) in 1 cup

Stir-fried Soybean Sprouts 

2.1mg (19% DV) in 100 grams

Sesame Seeds (toasted) 

2mg (18% DV) in 1 oz

Cranberry Beans (Roman Beans) 

2mg (18% DV) in 1 cup

Data from Myfooddata


Section 3: Getting Enough Calories On A Plant-based Diet, Measuring Nutrients, Supplements

Until now you learned about macronutrients, minerals, and vitamins that we need and where to find them. So how do you know if you get enough nutrients from your diet? In this section, you will find out how many calories you should eat on a plant-based diet to succeed.

Later on, you will discover if you should take supplements to reach your daily targets. You will also learn how to measure your nutrition intake with Cronometer.com. So let's start by talking about how many calories you need to eat each day.

7

Chapter 7: What Is A Calorie?

Calories in food provide energy to our bodies. You need this energy in everything you do and to stay healthy.

A calorie is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of water by 1 ℃. 

Kilocalories (kcal) is the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram of water by 1 ℃. 

Joule is another unit of measurement used to quantify energy. One small calorie is equal to under 4.2 joules. One kilocalorie (kcal) is about 4.2 kilojoules.

Healthy food provides calories and vital nutrients. But not all calories are healthy. Vegetable oils and white sugar are empty "calories." That means that they contain calories but have no other nutritional value.

calorie apple

Fruits and vegetables contain fewer calories than animal products

For our food to be healthy, it needs to contain both calories and nutrients. It is also vital that you get them from your body's preferred food source, plants.

You should not consume lots of fats because they have more calories than carbs. The body stores excess calories as body fat.

It needs some stored fat to stay healthy. But too much fat can cause health problems. Your body will put on more fat if you eat animal products, vegetable oils, and nuts.

So how do you make sure that you don't eat too much or too few calories? The first step is to calculate your daily caloric need.

You can estimate your caloric needs using simple formulas or online calculators. Continue to the next section to learn how to do that. 

How Many Calories Do You Need Each Day?

Calories are like the gas that you give your car. If you’re going to drive from point A to B you need to fill your car with a certain amount of gas to reach your destination. Your vehicle will stop in the middle of the road if you fail to do so. 

Every car uses various amounts of fuel to reach its destination. If you go faster, the fuel consumption will go up. It's the same with your body. You can calculate your caloric need each day by using the BMR formula.

BMR stands for Basal Metabolic Rate. It represents the number of calories you would burn in a day if you were inactive. You can also use this number to calculate your caloric intake based on your activity level. 

vegetable calories

You can learn how many calories you need by knowing your Basal Metabolic Rate

Basal Metabolic Rate calculations do not take into account for lean body mass. Muscular people will receive a figure that might under-estimate their calorie needs. Overweight people can get a number that over-estimates their calorie requirements.

There are two methods you can use to know your BMR: Mifflin - St Jeor method and the Harris-Benedict formula. Mifflin - St Jeor is the most updated one.

Men and women have different formulas for Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR). This is because men have a higher percentage of lean body weight than women.

The BMR calculations below use the Mifflin - St Jeor formula established in 1990. This method supersedes the 1919 Harris-Benedict formula.

Calculate your BMR by using one of these methods:

Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)

BMR for men 

BMR (metric) = (10 × weight in kg) + (6.25 × height in cm) - (5 × age in years) + 5

BMR (imperial) = (4.536 × weight in pounds) + (15.88 × height in inches) - (5 × age) + 5

BMR for women

BMR for women BMR (metric) = (10 × weight in kg) + (6.25 × height in cm) - (5 × age in years) - 161

BMR (imperial) = (4.536 × weight in pounds) + (15.88 × height in inches) - (5 × age) - 161

Example: David is a 50-year-old male that is 6.1 ft tall and weighs 187 pounds.

6.1 ft = 73 inches

Will will use the imperial formula for men.

BMR (imperial) = (4.536 × 187) + (15.88 × 73) - (5 × 50) + 5 = 1762

David's BMR is 1762, which is calories he needs to maintain the body while sedentary.

Most of us don't stay in bed all day; therefore we need to calculate our caloric intake based on our activity level. So let's learn how to calculate our daily calorie requirement.

How To Calculate Your Daily Calorie Requirement:

Your activity level setting is an estimate of the calories you burn during the day. It includes activities of daily living and exercise.

Once you've worked out your BMR, you can calculate your daily calorie need. Multiply your BMR by one of the following activity levels:

Daily Calorie Requirement:

 1. If you are sedentary (little or no exercise)

Calories Per Day = BMR x 1.2

2. If you are lightly active (light exercise or sports 1-3 days/week)

Calories Per Day = BMR x 1.375

3. If you are moderately active (moderate exercise 3-5 days/week)

Calories Per Day = BMR x 1.55

4. If you are active (hard exercise 6-7 days/week)

Calories Per Day = BMR x 1.725

5. 
If you are super active (intense exercise and a physical job)

Calories Per Day = BMR x 1.9

Example: David works out two times each week.

Calories per day= 1762x1.375= 2423

David needs 2423 calories per day at his activity level.

How To Eat Enough Calories On a Plant-Based Diet

One of the mistakes new vegans make is to eat too little calories. Plants contain fewer calories than animal products. That is why you need to eat a lot more food on a plant-based diet. If you fail to eat enough calories, you will become weak and tired.

If you are only eating vegetables, you will have a hard time reaching your caloric intake for the day. You will get hungry and crave food through the day. Fats contain lots of calories, but they won't sustain you either. Too much fat in your diet is not as healthy as I mentioned earlier.

The table below shows you the caloric content of various foods. As you can see, animal products hold more calories than vegetables. 

Calories in food

Calories in food

So how do you eat enough calories if you don't consume lots of fats? The easiest and cheapest way to meet your caloric intake is to center your diet around starches. Starchy vegetables contain quite a lot of calories and fiber.

Eat lots of rice, potatoes, sweet potatoes, corn, and oats. Add 600 to 900 calories of your choice of grains, legumes, or starchy vegetables to your meals. Divide the starch throughout the day.

You should eat around:

  • check
    4 cups of steamed rice
  • check
    4 cups boiled corn
  • check
    6 medium mashed potatoes
  • check
    4 baked sweet potatoes
  • check
    3 cups of cooked beans, peas, or lentils

Eat until you're full. Don’t force yourself to eat a set of calories per day if you feel great on less. Your body knows when it had enough calories per day.

You don’t need to calorie restrict on a low-fat plant-based diet. Just remember to eat beans, fruits, vegetables, and grains. Center your intake around starch, avoid oils and only eat limited amounts of nuts and avocado. 

  • Carbohydrates: 4 calories per gram
  • Protein: 4 calories per gram
  • Fat: 9 calories per gram

Your body will maintain its perfect weight when you eat a diet designed for it. Eat enough food and don’t feel the need to starve yourself. Most people who want to lose weight try to restrict their calories. But the downside of this method is that you will feel weak and suffer.

If you still eat animal products and junk food you will have a hard time losing weight. The reason for this is that your body will store excessive fat and poisons from animal products. When you eat a whole food plant-based diet, your body can utilize the food without a problem.

So now you should know how much calories to eat per day. In the next chapter, I will explain how to measure your caloric intake using the website www.cronometer.com.

8

Chapter 8: How To Measure Your Nutrient Intake With Cronometer

One great way to monitor how much nutrients you get each day is by using the website Cronometer.com. This site has an enormous nutritional database.

On this website, you can get reports on your macronutrient breakdown of your diet. 
You can also see how much minerals and vitamins you get each day.

To use this service you first need to register on their website. Add your email address and password of your liking.

Next, add info about your body type. Fill in your sex, birth date, height, and weight. The website will then calculate the caloric intake that you need each day.

Cronometer has five main screens or tabs:

Cronometer main menu

Cronometer main menu

1. Diary 
The diary screen is where you log the daily foods you wish to track. A summary of your daily nutrition is at the bottom.

Nutrition targets

Nutrition targets

You can see at a glance how well you are hitting each of your nutritional targets. By selecting individual items, you can also see how each piece contributes to your goals.

By default, Cronometer sets each nutrient to recommended values set by the DRI nutrition standards. The basic idea for these targets is that you need to get at least 100% of the minimum amount each day.

You can tap or mouse over each segment for more details. This feature is useful to analyze specific foods or meals and how they contribute to your nutrition.

Calories summary

Calories summary

The calories summary section shows your calories consumed and burned. Calories burned shows calories used based on your activity level. You can see your macro-nutrient targets in the Macronutrient Targets.

Calcium levels

Change minimum calcium target to 500 mg

Click on calcium and change the minimum daily value to 500 mg. If you eat a plant-based diet, you don't need more than 500 mg of calcium per day.

Diary additional functions

Diary additional functions

At the top of the page, there are several buttons you can press. Here is a brief look at what they do:

Add food
With this button, you can select the food that you eat each day.

Click on the "Add Food" button. Start typing in a food item you want to add.

Add food to Cronometer

Add food to Cronometer to measure the nutrition intake

For example, type 'potato.' You can enter keyword fragments separated by spaces to narrow your search. For example, typing 'potatoes ba' will find results such as 'Potatoes Baked.' Select the appropriate food item from the food list.

On the bottom of the "Add Foods To Diary" window, select the quantity and serving size.

Click "Add Serving." 

Add exercise
This button lets you add info about your activity level. 

Add your activity

Add your daily activity

Click on the "Add Exercise" button.

Enter your exercise or activity in the "Activity Search" text field.

Select the intensity of the activity from the "Description" menu. You can also link your step counter or other devices to Cronometer.

Add biometric
Use this button to add more biometric info such as your cholesterol levels and more.

Add your biometric data

Add your biometric data

Click on the "Add Biometric" button and choose what to add in the sub-menu.

Add note
With this button, you can add your notes for the day.

Add a note

Add a note

Click on "Add Note button" to write a note.

2. Trends
The Trends screen displays graphs and statistics on all your data. You won't see much here until you've logged your data for several days.

Trends

Trends

3. Foods
The Foods screen lets you browse all of the foods and recipes in their database. You can also create custom foods and recipes here. 

Add custom foods and recipes

You can add custom recipes and foods to Cronometer

4. Profile 
The Profile screen shows your account information and preferences. In this section, you can edit your nutritional targets and weight goal. It also allows you to manage your data. 

Dynamic Macronutrient Ratio Targets 

Some diets recommend specific target ratios for macronutrients. In the Dynamic macronutrients target, change the numbers to 10 80 10.

Change macronutrient targets

Change your macronutrient target to 10 80 10

That is 10% from protein, 80% carbs, and 10% from fats. This setting is the macronutrient uptake on a whole food low-fat plant-based diet. Don't worry if your fat intake is less than 10%. 

You can also change your activity level. The more active you are, the more calories you need to consume. 

Change your activity level

You can change your activity level

You can choose to track carbohydrates as total carbs or net carbs. By default, Cronometer uses net carbs which is total carbs with fiber subtracted. 

5. Help
In this tab, you can find the user manual and other resources.

Help screen

Help screen

In the next chapter, you will learn whether you should use supplements or not.

9

Chapter 9: Should You Use Supplements?

Many sites and health experts recommend that you take lots of supplements. They believe in supplements, even though there is little scientific evidence. Manufacturers do not have to prove the safety and effectiveness of their products.

You should always try to get all your vitamins and minerals from whole foods. So what do I mean by whole foods? It’s food as close as God or nature made it. Our plants contain all the nutrients we need to stay healthy.

We often hear that our soil does not contain enough nutrients. But the only people that repeat that lie work for the supplement industry. I measure what I eat every day, and I have never gotten too little nutrients.

The food we eat affects our bodies differently than supplements. A nourishing diet consists of many different nutrients that interact with each other.

A supplement often uses only one element in isolation. Separating nutrients from food makes the body confused. Too much of any nutrient is a problem.

Supplements

There is little scientific evidence that supplements are beneficial

When nutrients enter the cells, they float around in the cell’s fluids. They then attach themselves to a specific receptor, as a key fits into a lock. 

When we take a supplement, we flood cells with one kind of nutrient. The body receptor sites then get overwhelmed by the competition of the nutrient.

A pill is not a plant. Tablets cannot correct health problems if you don't change your diet and other things first. We need to get vitamins from our food to remain healthy and prevent serious illnesses.

Plants synthesize most known vitamins, except for vitamin D and B12. Vitamin D is not a vitamin, but a hormone manufactured by the body.

We get it from sunlight. You should avoid taking vitamin D supplements if you can get it from the sun. Go on a vacation to a warm place instead.

Your body can store vitamin D from sun exposure for months. Only take supplements if you live in a place where you can't get sunshine during the whole winter.

Bacteria produce vitamin B12, not plants or animals. You need to take a B12 supplement if you live on a strictly plant-based diet. Or you can eat foods fortified with B12.

How To Replace Supplements With Whole Foods

Get your vitamins by eating a whole food plant-based diet, as a supplement will never compare to real food. Starches, vegetables, and fruits are the best way to deliver these nutrients to the body. 

vegetables and a soup pot

Replace your supplements with whole foods

Save your money by eating whole foods instead of using pills. Try to focus your diet on vegetables, fruits, beans, and grains. Center your menu around starchy vegetables like rice, corn, potatoes, and sweet potatoes.

You need to eat them to get enough calories on a plant-based diet. Then add other vegetables to get more nutrients.

10

Chapter 10: Summary

  • Macronutrients are broader groups of nutrients like proteins, carbohydrates, water, and fats. We need to eat them in bulk.


  • Water plays an essential role in our digestion, waste removal, and temperature regulation. Although it yields no energy, it is necessary for life.


  • Proteins are structural materials that maintain cell shapes and enzymes. They also help cells signal between each other.


  • Our GI tracts limit the amount of protein we can digest. Overconsumption of protein overworks the liver and kidneys and can cause protein toxicity.


  • Carbohydrates are our most important macronutrient. It is a significant building block of plants.


  • Carbs consist of glucose or sugar. Plants use water, carbon dioxide, and sunshine to form simple sugars.


  • Our brain’s primary source of energy comes from glucose.


  • There are three basic types of carbohydrates, sugar, cellulose, and starch. Each contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in specific configurations.


  • Starch should be the basis of your diet and vegetables should have a smaller part.


  • You shouldn't be afraid of carbs as long as they come from whole foods.


  • Fats consist of complex molecules made up of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen.


  • The body uses fat for energy storage when there is no food available.


  • Too much fat in our diet makes us fat and may lead to diabetes, heart disease, and cancer.


  • All plants contain adequate fat if you eat enough calories. Fats in your diet should be low, around 5-10% of your daily calories.


  • There are two categories of fats: saturated fats and unsaturated fats.


  • Saturated fat is solid at room temperature. The word "saturated" refers to the number of hydrogen atoms surrounding each carbon atom. Avoid saturated fat at all cost. The easiest way to do that is to stop eating animal products.


  • There are only a few unsaturated fats we need and that our bodies can’t make by themselves.


  • There are two subcategories of unsaturated fat, monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fats.


  • Monounsaturated fats are liquid at room temperature, but start to harden when chilled.


  • Polyunsaturated fats have many unsaturated chemical bonds. Some polyunsaturated fats include omega-3 and omega-6 fats.


  • Trans fats are one of the worst types of fat you can eat. Most of them form through a process called hydrogenation. It is an industrial process that adds hydrogen to vegetable oils.


  • Micronutrients are one of the major groups of nutrients your body needs. It requires smaller amounts of micronutrients relative to macronutrients.


  • Minerals support our growth, bone health, fluid balance, and other processes.


  • Vitamins are necessary for energy production, immune function, blood clotting, and other purposes.


  • Calories provide energy to our bodies.


  • A calorie is the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of one gram of water by 1 ℃.


  • BMR stands for Basal Metabolic Rate. It represents the number of calories you would burn in a day if you were inactive.


  • Your activity level setting is an estimate of the calories you burn during the day. It includes activities of daily living and exercise.


  • The easiest and cheapest way to get enough calories on a vegan diet is to focus on starches.


  • One great way to monitor how much nutrients you get each day is by using the website Cronometer.com.


  • You don't need to take many supplements if you eat a whole-food plant-based diet.

11

Chapter 11: Closing Remarks

I hoped you liked The Ultimate Cancer Diet And Nutrition Guide and learned a lot. It can be overwhelming at first when everything is new. With the information provided you have a higher chance in succeeding on a plant-based diet.

The info in this guide is useless if you don't take action. The best way to start a plant-based diet is to create a goal.

If you don't know where to start, then join our 12 day Vegan Cancer Challenge. In this 7-day email course, you get everything you need to begin a plant-based diet successfully.

I wish you excellent health and prosperity.

Simon From Cancer Wisdom

Resources:

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